Sunday, February 19, 2017
Men Unlike Us
Renaissance, Humanism, Reformation are not mere abstractions, personifications wandering over the heavens where the Chimera chases Transcendent Ideals. To understand these great changes we must recreate for ourselves the habits of mind of the people who brought them about.Id., p. 20:
Were those minds like our minds? I know that man's essential nature is unchanging through time and space. I know that old tune. But that is an assumption, and I might add, a worthless assumption for a historian. For him, as for the geographer, as we have had occasion to remark earlier, man does not exist, only men. His efforts are directed toward discerning the particular originality, the distinguishing marks, all that in which and by which those men differed from us, men who did not live or feel or behave as we do.
Was man in the abstract the same? Possibly. I know nothing about him. He and the historian have little contact, for the historian is concerned with reality rather than abstractions. Concrete man, living man, man in flesh and blood living in the sixteenth century and modern man do not much resemble each other. He was a country man, a nomad, a rustic, and in all these we are far from him.Id., p. 23:
These are the things we should try to remember when we wish to understand the "things of the sixteenth century." We must remember that we are all, like it or not, hothouse products; the man of the sixteenth century grew in the open air.Id., p. 48:
Obviously the projection of the present, which has no special claim to eternity, into the past is not acceptable.Id., p. 73:
We must banish the France of today from our minds.
Saturday, February 18, 2017
A Baneful Notion
Some people will say these are little things; they are not; they are of bad example. They tend to spread the baneful notion that there is no such thing as a high, "correct" standard in intellectual matters; that every one may as well take his own way; they are at variance with the severe discipline necessary for all real culture; they confirm us in habits of wilfulness and eccentricity, which hurt our minds, and damage our credit with serious people.
Protest of the Month Club
Larry and Chris Handelin of San Francisco have launched a unique experiment — Protest of the Month. "Once each month," says their leaflet, "you'll be notified of a protest." They suggest that each following monthly protest be decided on the picket line of the ongoing protest, with notices sent out to all interested in joining the Protest of the Month Club.
What a splendid idea! Nuclear submarines, Cuban invasions, Jackie's taste in lipstick or cultural advisers, Jack's hairdo, Mac's Common Market, Charley's Common Market, Sedar-Senghor's Negritude, Nasser's Anti-Semitism, Ben Gurion's Semitism, Barry's Democracy, Gus Hall's Democracy, Senator Eastland's Democracy, Martin Luther King's Satyagraha, Malcolm X's Soul Force ... take a position ... grab a placard ... march up and down.
How do you feel about Birth Control? Women's Suffrage? Evolution? Edward Teller? Bishop Pike? Make your opinions known on the picket line. You haven't got any opinions? Fine! Join the picket line, any picket line. Placards free, tattered jeans, holey sneakers and false whiskers at a slight charge.
Whither are we drifting? Certainly past the point of diminishing returns.
Talking to Plants and Tree-Hugging
Talking to plants and tree-hugging in Aristophanes' Peace:
ὦ ποθεινὴ τοῖς δικαίοις καὶ γεωργοῖς ἡμέρα,
ἄσμενός σ᾽ ἰδὼν προσειπεῖν βούλομαι τὰς ἀμπέλους,
τάς τε συκᾶς, ἃς ἐγὼ 'φύτευον ὢν νεώτερος,
ἀσπάσασθαι θυμὸς ἡμῖν ἐστι πολλοστῷ χρόνῳ. [556-9]
O day that gladdens the wishes of the just and of the husbandmen, how I delight to behold you, and long to salute the vines! and after the lapse of so long a time, I am impatient to embrace the fig-trees I planted in the days of my youth. (Sir Edwin Arnold, 1840)
Friday, February 17, 2017
Notes are often necessary, but they are necessary evils. Let him, that is yet unacquainted with the powers of Shakespeare, and who desires to feel the highest pleasure that the drama can give, read every play from the first scene to the last, with utter negligence of all his commentators. When his fancy is once on the wing, let it not stoop at correction or explanation. When his attention is strongly engaged, let it disdain alike to turn aside to the name of Theobald and of Pope. Let him read on through brightness and obscurity, through integrity and corruption; let him preserve his comprehension of the dialogue and his interest in the fable. And when the pleasures of novelty have ceased, let him attempt exactness, and read the commentators.
Particular passages are cleared by notes, but the general effect of the work is weakened. The mind is refrigerated by interruption; the thoughts are diverted from the principal subject; the reader is weary, he suspects not why; and at last throws away the book, which he has too diligently studied.
Only Good News, Please
And it is our will and command that all and several, as they hold our favor dear, take care that, whithersoever they go or whencesoever they return and whatsoever they hear or see, they bring us from without no news other than joyous.
E ciascun generalmente, per quanto egli avrà cara la nostra grazia, vogliamo e comandiamo che si guardi, dove che egli vada, onde che egli torni, che che egli oda o vegga, niuna novella altra che lieta ci rechi di fuori.
Anything in folklore that remains alive comes from before Christianity. — The same is true of whatever is alive in each of us.
Tout ce qui est encore vivant dans le folklore vient d'avant le christianisme. Il en est de même de tout ce qui est vivant en chacun de nous.
A Moral Duty
I must confess to having had in the past slight qualms of conscience before spending a month's income on a book — now it becomes almost a moral duty, an act of selfless devotion.
A Scholar's Fantasy
Once there was a lady,The Latin:
very rich and famous,
and she loved a lad,
a very handsome lad.
And he went into the chamber,
kissing his lady-love.
'Scholar, scholar, do you know—
what you must do now?
You've got to take me now
three times, in any way you like!'
When he had done his mistress' will,
the clerc began to weep.
'Quiet, quiet now, my clerc—
I want to pay you now.
I'll give you lots of daytime clothes,
some woollies and some shirts.'
The scholar became quiet at last,
because he liked this well.
Erat quedam dominaI think this is also in Bryan Gillingham, Secular Medieval Latin Song: An Anthology (Ottawa: The Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1993 = Musicological Studies 60/1), but the book is unavailable to me.
Valde dives et clara,
Et dilexit puerum,
Et intravit cameram
'Scis tu, scis tu, clerice,
Quid tu debes facere?
Debes me supponere
Velud vis ter opere.'
Quando factum fuerat
'Tace, tace, clerice,
Volo tibi solvere;
Dabo tibi tunicas,
Tractas et camisias.'
Clericus tunc tacuit,
Quia sibi placuit.
I tried to find an image of the manuscript page here, but there wasn't one.
Thursday, February 16, 2017
Renowned achievement's been bitter business from the beginning.
Who can you trust to tell the story of all you've done and not done?
Whatever happens is already murky enough, and full of distortion,
then small minds muddle the truth further and it's utter confusion:
they only hand down dregs. Their azure-green and cinnabar inks
can't capture the fresh kernel of things, the quintessential spirit,
and how could they fathom a lofty sage's thoughts, those mindless
sentinels guarding thousand-autumn dust on their pages of paper?
Worthy of all admiration was these men's deed of daring, and so also were their sayings which I here record. As they journeyed to Susa, they came to Hydarnes, a Persian, who was general of the sea-coast of Asia; he entertained and feasted them as guests, and as they sat at his board, "Lacedaemonians," he questioned them, "why do you shun the king's friendship? You can judge from what you see of me and my condition how well the king can honour men of worth. So might it be with you; would you but put yourselves in the king's hands, being as you are of proven worth in his eyes, every one of you might by his commission be a ruler of Hellas." To this the Spartans answered: "Your counsels to us, Hydarnes, are ill assorted; one half of them rests on knowledge, but the other on ignorance; you know well how to be a slave, but you have never tasted of freedom, to know whether it be sweet or not. Were you to taste of it, not with spears you would counsel us to fight for it, no, but with axes."
Αὕτη τε ἡ τόλμα τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν θώματος ἀξίη καὶ τάδε πρὸς τούτοισι τὰ ἔπεα. πορευόμενοι γὰρ ἐς Σοῦσα ἀπικνέονται παρὰ Ὑδάρνεα· ὁ δὲ Ὑδάρνης ἦν μὲν γένος Πέρσης, στρατηγὸς δὲ τῶν παραθαλασσίων ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ· ὅς σφεας ξείνια προθέμενος ἱστία, ξεινίζων δὲ εἴρετο τάδε. "Ἄνδρες Λακεδαιμόνιοι, τί δὴ φεύγετε βασιλέι φίλοι γενέσθαι; ὁρᾶτε γὰρ ὡς ἐπίσταται βασιλεὺς ἄνδρας ἀγαθοὺς τιμᾶν, ἐς ἐμέ τε καὶ τὰ ἐμὰ πρήγματα ἀποβλέποντες. οὕτω δὲ καὶ ὑμεῖς εἰ δοίητε ὑμέας αὐτοὺς βασιλέι, δεδόξωσθε γὰρ πρὸς αὐτοῦ ἄνδρες εἶναι ἀγαθοί, ἕκαστος ἂν ὑμέων ἄρχοι γῆς Ἑλλάδος δόντος βασιλέος." πρὸς ταῦτα ὑπεκρίναντο τάδε. "Ὕδαρνες, οὐκ ἐξ ἴσου γίνεται ἡ συμβουλίη ἡ ἐς ἡμέας τείνουσα. τοῦ μὲν γὰρ πεπειρημένος συμβουλεύεις, τοῦ δὲ ἄπειρος ἐών· τὸ μὲν γὰρ δοῦλος εἶναι ἐξεπίστεαι, ἐλευθερίης δὲ οὔκω ἐπειρήθης, οὔτ᾿ εἰ ἔστι γλυκὺ οὔτ᾿ εἰ μή. εἰ γὰρ αὐτῆς πειρήσαιο, οὐκ ἂν δόρασι συμβουλεύοις ἡμῖν περὶ αὐτῆς μάχεσθαι, ἀλλὰ καὶ πελέκεσι."
Nature, mother feared and wept forThe same (tr. Geoffrey L. Bickersteth):
since the human family was born, 45
marvel that cannot be praised,
that bears and nurtures only to destroy,
if dying young brings mortals pain,
why let it come down
on these blameless heads? 50
And if good, then why is it unhappy,
why make this leaving inconsolable,
worse than any other woe,
for those who live, as well as those who go?
Unhappy everywhere they look, 55
wretched where they turn or run,
is this feeling race.
You chose that life should disappoint
the hope of youth,
that the wave of years be full of pain, 60
with death our only
shield from suffering;
and this inevitable end, this changeless law,
you established for the human journey.
Madre temuta e pianta
Dal nascer già dell'animal famiglia, 45
Natura, illaudabil maraviglia,
Che per uccider partorisci e nutri,
Se danno è del mortale
Immaturo perir, come il consenti
In quei capi innocenti? 50
Se ben, perchè funesta,
Perchè sovra ogni male,
A chi si parte, a chi rimane in vita,
Inconsolabil fai tal dipartita?
Misera ovunque miri, 55
Misera onde si volga, ove ricorra,
Questa sensibil prole!
Piacqueti che delusa
Fosse ancor dalla vita
La speme giovanil; piena d'affanni 60
L'onda degli anni; ai mali unico schermo
La morte; e questa inevitabil segno,
Questa, immutata legge
Ponesti all'uman corso.
Mother, bewailed and fearedThe same (tr. R.C. Trevelyan):
Since first thy creature-kind was born till now, 45
Nature, uncommendable monster, thou
Who bringest forth and nurturest but to kill,
If evil it be to die
Untimely, wherefore should these innocent
So perish, and thou consent? 50
If good, why makest thou
So lamentable, why
So far beyond all comfort such a death
Both to the dying and those who still draw breath?
Wretched in all its aims, 55
Wretched in all it seeks, in all it shuns,
Is this quick-feeling race!
It pleased thee that the hope
Man cherishes in youth
Should be belied by age; that brimmed with woe 60
His years should flow; from ills his only shield
Be death; ay, this the inevitable end,
This the unchanging law
Imposed on his career.
Mother, feared and bewailedId., lines 107-109 (tr. Galassi):
Since we thy offspring first to life were born, 45
Nature, thou wondrous power whom none can praise,
Who engenderest and nurturest but to kill,
If evil it be for mortals
To die untimely, why on these innocent heads
Suffer this woe to fall? 50
If it be good, why make
This parting such a sorrow,
So unconsolable beyond all evils
To those who depart from life and those who stay?
Wretched where'er it gazes, 55
Wretched where'er it turns or seeks for refuge,
Is man's too sensitive race.
It has pleased thee that youth's
Fond hopes should be deceived
By life's experience; that filled with miseries 60
Our years should flow; our one defence from evils
Should be death: this the inevitable limit,
The unalterable law
Thou hast ordained for man's career.
But Nature in her actions is concernedThe same (tr. Bickersteth):
with something else besides our pain or joy.
Ma da natura
Altro negli atti suoi
Che nostro male o nostro ben si cura.
But for our woeThe same (tr. Trevelyan):
Or for our weal no care
Hath Nature, bent on ends that none can know.
But in her works
Nature is ever busied
With cares far other than for our weal or woe.
Wednesday, February 15, 2017
Have you ever been in need of money? Almost every man who enters our society joins it as a young man in need of money. His instincts are unsullied, his intellect is fresh and strong, but he must live. How comes it that the country is full of maimed human beings, of cynics and feeble good men, and outside of this no form of life except the diabolical intelligence of pure business?....He must get on. He goes into a law office, and if he is offended at its dishonest practices he cannot speak. He soon accepts them. Thereafter he cannot see them. He goes into a newspaper office, the same; a banker's, a merchant's, a dry-goods' shop. What has happened to these fellows at the end of three years, that their minds seem to be drying up? I have seen many men I knew in college grow more and more uninteresting from year to year. Is there something in trade that desiccates and flattens out, that turns men into dried leaves at the age of forty? Certainly there is. It is not due to trade, but to intensity of self-seeking, combined with narrowness of occupation.
A City of Immigrants
He told me much about the city, if I remember, and in particular this, that all the inhabitants were aliens and foreigners, not one was a native; there were even many barbarians among the citizens, as well as slaves, cripples, dwarfs, and paupers—in a word anyone who wanted to take part in the city; for property, apparel, height, good looks, family, brilliant ancestry, were not required by law for enrolment; on the contrary, they gave no place in their customs to them; no, intelligence, a desire for what is good, industry, perseverance, a refusal to give in or be weakened by the many hardships encountered on the way, were enough for a man to become a citizen; whoever showed these qualities and kept on going all the way to the city was a citizen there and then equal to them all; inferior or superior, noble or common, bond or free, simply did not exist and were not mentioned in the city.
ἔλεγε δ᾿ οὖν περὶ τῆς πόλεως, εἴ γε μέμνημαι, ἄλλα τε πολλὰ καὶ δὴ καὶ τάδε, ὡς ξύμπαντες μὲν ἐπήλυδες καὶ ξένοι εἶεν, αὐθιγενὴς δὲ οὐδὲ εἷς, ἀλλὰ καὶ βαρβάρους ἐμπολιτεύεσθαι πολλοὺς καὶ δούλους καὶ ἀμόρφους καὶ μικροὺς καὶ πένητας, καὶ ὅλως μετέχειν τῆς πόλεως τὸν βουλόμενον· τὸν γὰρ δὴ νόμον αὐτοῖς οὐκ ἀπὸ τιμημάτων ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἐγγραφὴν οὐδ᾿ ἀπὸ σχημάτων ἢ μεγέθους ἢ κάλλους οὐδ᾿ ἀπὸ γένους τοῦ τῶν λαμπρῶν ἐκ προγόνων, ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν οὐδὲ νομίζεσθαι παρ᾿ αὐτοῖς, ἀποχρῆν δ᾿ ἑκάστῳ πρὸς τὸ πολίτην γενέσθαι σύνεσιν καὶ ἐπιθυμίαν τῶν καλῶν καὶ πόνον καὶ τὸ λιπαρὲς καὶ τὸ μὴ ἐνδοῦναι μηδὲ μαλακισθῆναι πολλοῖς τοῖς δυσχερέσι κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἐντυγχάνοντα, ὡς ὅστις ἂν ταῦτα ἐπιδείξηται καὶ διεξέλθῃ πορευόμενος ἄχρι πρὸς τὴν πόλιν, αὐτίκα μάλα πολίτην ὄντα τοῦτον ὅστις ἂν ᾖ καὶ ἰσότιμον ἅπασι· τὸ δὲ χείρων ἢ κρείττων ἢ εὐπατρίδης ἢ ἀγεννὴς ἢ δοῦλος ἢ ἐλεύθερος οὐδὲ ὅλως εἶναι ἢ λέγεσθαι ἐν τῇ πόλει.
English Equivalents of Greek Words
I don't know the meaning of a single Greek word—and I have a sort of belief that they none of them have English equivalents. Any word in a language corresponds to a district in the map of the brain—and the maps of Greek and English if superimposed never show an approach to identity anywhere. The people who devote their lives to Greek get queered—(and no one can begin to know it without devoting his life to it).
Tuesday, February 14, 2017
A Rabelaisian List
But it is possible to make other sorts of Rabelaisian lists, for example by collecting words scattered throughout Rabelais all referring to similar objects or actions. One such list was compiled by Raymond C. La Charité, "An Aspect of Obscenity in Rabelais," Renaissance and Other Studies in Honor of William Leon Wiley, ed. George Bernard Daniel (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968 = Studies in the Romance Languages and Literatures, 72), pp. 167-189, who collected words and phrases used by Rabelais to describe copulation.
Quoted definitions in the list below are La Charité's, unless otherwise indicated. Harrap = Harrap's New Standard French and English Dictionary (London: Harrap, 1980).
- badouiner: "to copulate with reference to donkies [sic, read donkeys]"
- beliner: "Breed: (of ram, or ewe), to tup" (Harrap, s.v. béliner)
- beluter: "(1) to sift, to pass through a sieve; (2) to separate while sifting; (3) to agitate; (4) to examine attentively"
- besoingner: "to work hard" (Harrap, s.v. besogner)
- biscoter: "to hop or to jump about"
- bouter: "to put, to place, to drive"
- bragmarder: to engage in sword-play, to fence. "The braquemart was a short, stubby sword..."
- brimballer: "to swing, to dangle"
- bubajaller: to enjoy like a buffalo. L. Sainéan, La Langue de Rabelais, Vol. II: Langue et Vocabulaire (Paris: E. De Boccard, 1923), p. 310: "Une contamination de bubaler, faire comme les buffles, et de jaller (forme réduite de galler), jouir."
- chevaucher: "to ride (on), straddle" (Harrap, sense 2)
- coingner: "to hit, to strike"
- décrotter: "to expedite, to do ... something rapidly"
- depuceller: "to deflower" (Harrap, s.v. dépuceler)
- embourrer: "to stuff, pad" (Harrap)
- estoupper: "to stop up (crevices, etc.) with tow, oakum" (Harrap, s.v. étouper, sense 1)
- faire la beste à deux dos: to make the beast with two backs (cf. Shakespeare, Othello I.i.14)
- faire la combercelle: "to bend one's back (namely that of the woman) in the form of a saddle"
- fanfrelucher: "to garnish with baubles, trifles, or trinkets," i.e. to play at trifles
- farbouller: to stuff (farcir) the ball (boule), or to stuff the cabinet (boulle)?
- fretinfretailler: to perform "the sexual act in terms of both sound and the repeatedly short and rapid movement or agitation which creates it." A portmanteau word perhaps made up of freter ("to rub"), fertailler ("to strike"), and fresteler ("to make noise").
- frotter son lard: to rub one's bacon
- gimbretiletolleter: to jiggety-jog (cf. M.A. Screech's translation of IV.prol.).
- jocqueter: "to go to roost, to perch" (Harrap, s.v. jucher)
- jouer des manequins à basses marches: to play "the stiff lowdown in-and-out game" (cf. Douglas Frame's translation of II.21).
- jouer de quille: to play skittles. A quille is a "ninepin, skittle(pin)" (Harrap, sense 1.a).
- jouer du serrecropière: to play "at squeezing one's rumps together"
- labourer: "to till, esp. to plough" (Harrap, sense 1)
- lanterner: "to trifle; to dilly-dally" (Harrap, sense 1)
- rataconniculer: "to reiterate leacherie," i.e. lechery (Randle Cotgrave, A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues)
- roussiner: act like a war-horse, charger, stallion
- sabouler: "to jostle; to pull (s.o.) about" (Harrap)
- sabourrer: "to ballast or to weigh down a ship"
- saccader: "to jerk (a horse's rein)" (Harrap)
- sacsacbezevezinemasser: "to stuff and to go back and forth in a noisy, jerky way"
- tabourer: "(1) to beat the drums, (2) to make a loud noise, and (3) to strike..."
- talocher: "to cuff; to clout (s.o.) on the head; to box (s.o.'s) ears" (Harrap, sense 2)
Monday, February 13, 2017
Girls are very stuckup and dignefied in their maner and behaveyour. They think more of dress than any thing and like to play with dowls and rags. They cry if they see a cow in afar distance and are afraid of guns. They stay at home all the time and go to Church every Sunday. They are al-ways sick. They are al-ways funy and making fun of boys hands and they say how dirty. They cant play marbels. I pity them poor things. They make fun of boys and then turn round and love them. I dont beleave they ever kiled a cat or any thing. They look out every nite and say oh ant the moon lovely. Thir is one thing I have not told and that is they always now their lessons bettern boys.
Verses for a 68th Birthday Card
As life runs on, the road grows strange
With faces new, and near the end
The milestones into headstones change,
'Neath every one a friend.
More lugubrious birthday verses, these written on his 24th birthday by George Crabbe (1754-1832), "My Birth-Day," Poetical Works, Vol. II (London: John Murray, 1834), pp. 313-314:
Aldborough, Dec. 24. 1778.Related posts:
Through a dull tract of woe, of dread,
The toiling year has pass'd and fled:
And, lo! in sad and pensive strain,
I sing my birth-day date again.
Trembling and poor, I saw the light,
New waking from unconscious night:
Trembling and poor I still remain
To meet unconscious night again.
Time in my pathway strews few flowers,
To cheer or cheat the weary hours;
And those few strangers, dear indeed,
Are choked, are check'd, by many a weed.
- Motto for a 65th Birthday Card
- Birthday Celebrations
- Ideas for Birthday Card Greetings
- Motto for a Birthday Card
- Birthday Greetings
Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom
I think the world was better when Senator Borah, William Jennings Bryan, Abie Kabibble, the Two Black Crows, Eugene V. Debs, burlesque shows, Bert Savoy and Mr. Dooley were all at large in the land, each raising his special brand of commotion. It was certainly livelier.
Let a hundred flowers bloom, say I, and if that be subversion, make the most of it.
Some Plurals of Personal Names in Greek
πολλοὺς δὲ καὶ ἄλλους ἦν ἰδεῖν ἐν ταῖς τριόδοις μεταιτοῦντας, Ξέρξας λέγω καὶ Δαρείους καὶ Πολυκράτας.Lucian, How to Write History 2:
ἀλλ᾿ ἀφ᾿ οὗ δὴ τὰ ἐν ποσὶ ταῦτα κεκίνηται—ὁ πόλεμος ὁ πρὸς τοὺς βαρβάρους καὶ τὸ ἐν Ἀρμενίᾳ τραῦμα καὶ αἱ συνεχεῖς νῖκαι—οὐδεὶς ὅστις οὐχ ἱστορίαν συγγράφει· μᾶλλον δὲ Θουκυδίδαι καὶ Ἡρόδοτοι καὶ Ξενοφῶντες ἡμῖν ἅπαντες...Lucian, Saturnalia 24:
...παῖδας δὲ αὐτῶν τοὺς ὡραίους καὶ κομήτας, οὓς Ὑακίνθους ἢ Ἀχιλλέας ἢ Ναρκίσσους ὀνομάζουσι...Lucian, Apology for the "Salaried Posts in Great Houses" 1 (I know that Pactolus is a river name, not a person's name):
πόσοι Μίδαι καὶ Κροῖσοι καὶ Πακτωλοὶ ὅλοι μετέπεισαν αὐτὸν ἀφεῖναι μὲν τὴν ἐκ παίδων φίλην καὶ σύντροφον ἐλευθερίαν...;Lucian, Hermotimus 35:
τί ποτ᾿ οὖν ἀδύνατον εἶναί σοι δοκεῖ, ἐντυγχάνοντά τινα μόνοις τοῖς Στωϊκοῖς λέγουσι τἀληθῆ πείθεσθαί τε αὐτοῖς καὶ μηκέτι δεῖσθαι τῶν ἄλλων εἰδότα ὡς οὐκ ἄν ποτε τὰ τέτταρα πέντε γένοιτο, οὐδ᾿ ἂν μυρίοι Πλάτωνες ἢ Πυθαγόραι λέγωσιν;Lucian, To One Who Said, "You're a Prometheus in Words" 2:
καὶ αὐτοὶ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι τοὺς χυτρέας καὶ ἱπνοποιοὺς καὶ πάντας ὅσοι πηλουργοί Προμηθέας ἀπεκάλουν...Lucian, The Ship 46:
...ὥσπερ οἱ τοὺς βασιλεῖς ὑποκρινόμενοι τραγῳδοὶ ἐξελθόντες ἀπὸ τοῦ θεάτρου λιμώττοντες οἱ πολλοί, καὶ ταῦτα πρὸ ὀλίγου Ἀγαμέμνονες ὄντες ἢ Κρέοντες.See I. van Wageningen, "Cerdo sive de nominibus propriis Latinis appellativorum loco adhibitis," Mnemosyne 40 (1912) 147-172, and a series of posts at the Farrago blog:
- Plurals of personal names in Latin
- Plurals of personal names from mythology
- Plurals of regional names